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ISSN 2391-9361


Edition circulation: 130 copies


1 5(17)/2016/1

Chemical composition and genesis of tonstein biotite from in upper silesian coal basin (Poland)

Abstract: The paper makes an attempt to explain the origin of pyroclastic material, which is the base for tonstein material and directions of its alterations on the grounds of detailed chemical studies of biotite, present in the rocks. The studies revealed that biotite from tonstein from 713 coal seam of Jejkowice Tectonic Trough, Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) undergo kaolinization and carbonatization. Chemical constitution of biotite is diversified, which is especially seen in CaO i Na2O configuration, and may indicate two generations of the mineral. Examined biotite plates belong to Fe-phlogopites and Mg- biotites and comes from magmatic rocks, peraluminous or Ca- alkaline. Biotite from tonstein from stratum 713 of Jejkowice Tectonic Trough was probably accompanying by amphiboles. In respect of alteration examined biotite plates occupy intermediate position between primary and secondary biotite.

Keywords: biotite, tonstein, the Jejkowice tectonic troug, GZW, igneous rocks
p. 9 pobierz
2 5(17)/2016/2

Zdzisław ADAMCZYK, Agata JAKÓBIK, Joanna KOMOREK, Małgorzata LEWANDOWSKA, Małgorzata OSADNIK
The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) during sequential chemical leaching of coal from seam 404, “PNIÓWEK” coal mine (USCB)

Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the distribution of REE in coal using during the sequential chemical leaching of four coal samples from 404 seam of Ruda beds of “Pniówek” coal mine. The five digestion steps were used to determine REE distribution. In this study adopted the leaching procedure described in work D.A. Spears.The content of REE in obtained solutions was determined by ICP-MS method.The contents of REE in the samples was analyzed in coal and separately in the solutions which were products of the sequential leaching of inorganic and organic substances of coal. It was found that the REE content in coal samples is varied. The contents of REE were normalized to chondrites. It showed a small negative anomaly for Eu and larger positive anomaly for Gd. The enrichment in LREE of coal samples and respectively lower and less diverse of HREE content are shown on all of the normalized curves. The normalized curves obtained for chondrites REE content in the leaching products connected with organic substance (stage IV-V) have a similar course.The normalized curves obtained for chondrites REE content of the leaching products connected with mineral substance (stage I-III) for the individual samples of coal were similar. All these curves are characterized by positive anomalies in the range of Sm-Tb and enrichment in MREE relative to LREE.

Keywords: rare earth elements, REE, sequential chemical leaching, Ruda beds, USCB
p. 21 pobierz
3 5(17)/2016/3

Zdzisław ADAMCZYK, Katarzyna NOWIŃSKA
Chemical composition of pyrite in the feed mixture into zinc and lead pirometallurgical process

Abstract: Pyrite is one of the major mineral composition in feed mixture of ISP pyrometallurgical process of Zinc Plant “Miasteczko Śląskie” S.A. In piryte sphalerite and galena inclusions and accompanying elements were identified (Ca, Mn, Se, As, Ag, Cu). The accompanying elements may accumulate in the materials of ISP process, for example dust. The mineral components emitted with dust into environment, may decompose and release the accompanying elements into the hypergenic environment.

Keywords: pyrometallurgy, zinc, lead, piryte, feed mixture, hypergenic environment
p. 38 pobierz
4 5(17)/2016/4

Weathering indices variability of contemporary odra sediments and its tributaries

Abstract: Chemical weathering indices are commonly used for characterizing weathering profiles and evaluating degree of weathering process. Their values allow to point at non-weathered source rock composition. Using study results of Odra and Warta drainage basin sediments, there was made a try to define variability of chemical indices in this country area. Among applied indices the most important role have Weathering Index of Parker (WIP) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), thus them was given the most attention to. In order to better reflecting the intensity of weathering there were used additional indices, sensitive to the slightest geochemical changes. Vogt’s Residual Index (V), Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and Plagioclase Index of Alteration (PIA) were calculated. Study results let to evaluation the weathering intensity in the all study area and to indicate factors, which are in charge of this process. Lithology, climate, flow magnitude and region morphology have an influence on the values of weathering indices.

Keywords: chemical weathering indices, Odra drainage basin, chemical weathering
p. 48 pobierz
5 5(17)/2016/5

Aleksandra CZAJKOWSKA, Justyna OSOWSKA
Creation of a mike flood hydraulic model to designate floodplains in the upper part of Kłodnica river basin

Abstract: This paper presents the methodology of determining flood hazard zones illustrated with the example of the upper part of Kłodnica river basin. This is the area where mining activities in coal mines are conducted what have led to ground subsidence, formation of ponds in subsidence troughs, disturbance of gravitational flow of water, resulting in consequence in higher flood hazard within the river basin. The interactions between the river and the floodplains were studied with the help of MIKE FLOOD by DHI computer software. MIKE FLOOD package contains MIKE 11 tool which enables to create a one-dimensional model and MIKE 21 tool which was used to prepare a two-dimensional model. Model calculations were made for a hypothetical flood-wave with its culmination corresponding to a flow of exceedance probability p = 0,2%. As a result of these calculations potential flooded areas within the river basin were determined.

Keywords: two-dimensional model, Kłodnica river basin, flood hazard zones, hydraulic model, MIKE FLOOD
p. 61 pobierz
6 5(17)/2016/6

Aleksandra CZAJKOWSKA, Justyna OSOWSKA
ArcGIS desktop as tool supporting the process of flood modeling

Abstract: Flood losses minimization is dependent on proper determining the extent of flood hazard zones what requires the development of a hydraulic model by means of MIKE FLOOD application. Preparation of the input data for the model is carried out using GIS software. One of the programmes commonly used is ArcGIS Desktop by ESRI. In the article selected functions and tools of the ArcGIS Desktop programme were presented - the functions and tools which are necessary to prepare the hydraulic model and to visualize the obtained results as flood hazard zones.

Keywords: ArcGIS Desktop, flood hazard map, flood zone, one-dimensional model, two-dimensional model
p. 74 pobierz
7 5(17)/2016/7

Magdalena CZARNA
Migration of chemicals used to the liquidation icing pavement

Abstract: In winter road maintenance service road remove snow from the road surface and slippery winter In Poland, the most commonly used fluxing agent is sodium chloride (NaCl), road salt (97% NaCl + 2,5% CaCl2 + 0,2% K4Fe(CN)6), less calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). The use of chemicals to the formation of cracks in road surfaces, corrosion and to irreversible changes in the environment. The article indicates the degree of migration of chemicals used in Poland in the winter (February 2015). And the reach of these measures by the determination of soil salinity using roadside conductivity (October 2014, March 2015). The research was carried out on the road No. 282 (ring road Nowy Kisielin) for 24 separate quarters in a layer of ice on the area of 0.5 m2 each and 6 transects with 5 measuring points localized on each transect 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 m of each lodging. The study clearly showed high salinity of soils located at the waist roadside where road salt is used, while indicating the highest degree of migration of the measure in a layer of slippery winter.

Keywords: road surfaces, ice on the road, chemicals
p. 86 pobierz
8 5(17)/2016/8

Iwona JONCZY, Łukasz GAWOR
Chosen geochemical processes occurring in industrial waste dumps in upper Siesian region

Abstract: In the paper there are described geochemical processes occurring on industrial waste dumps, which has been stored for years. Field observations and laboratory tests have been done on the basis of material gathered on chosen waste dumps after hard coal mining and metallurgic waste after preparation of iron, zinc and lead. It was determined that as a result of exogenous processes the wastes disposed on dumps undergo changes of mechanical character and metamorphosis considering changes of mineral and chemical composition.

Keywords: industrial wastes dumps, metallurgic wastes, hard coal mining wastes, geochemical processes
p. 93 pobierz
9 5(17)/2016/9

Relationship of the trace elements content with minerals and organic matter of the lithotypes from the coal seam 308 (Orzesze beds) USCB

Abstract: Variability of the content of the selected trace elements (Hg, Cd, Be, As, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Co, Mo, Mn) from the coal lithotypes and their ashes from 308 coal seam (Orzesze beds) were investigated. The enrichment coefficient value (W) have been calculated for the ashes of the lithotypes as a ratio of an element’ s content in the ash to its content in the lithotype. The assumption was that coefficient value W increase with increasing content of an element related to the organic matter of the coal. information that solves the problem. Take account of fact that complaints are in every company, especially in the production company and considering the multiplicity of publications about search for causes of problems, identification of assumptions for construction a comprehensive complaint management system is an essential points. This system will include range of different areas of the company, which will support to make decisions in easier way. It will affect to the reduction of the quality costs.

Keywords: trace elements, coal lithotypes, ashes, enrichment coefficient
p. 109 pobierz
10 5(17)/2016/10

Mineralogical and geochemical characterization deposits from the westphalian of the Lublin coal basin enriched in manganese

Abstract: The paper presents the results of petrographic and geochemical researches of the claystones and mudstones with high content of Mn from paralic and limnic series (Westphalian A and B) of the Lublin Coal Basin. Geochemical analysis included the content of Fe, V, Ca, Mg and Ni and their correlation with the content of Mn. Studies have shown that, for all samples significantly enriched in Mn concentration of Fe is also high and the correlation between the values of the enrichment factor EfMn and EfFe is very strong. It was also found that the increased content of Mn sometimes is accompanied by increased content of V, Ni or Mg.

Keywords: paralic series, limnic series, Westphalian A i B, Lublin formation, manganese, enrichment factor
p. 121 pobierz
11 5(17)/2016/11

Facies development of the Westphalian marine faunal horizons of northwestern and central Europe

Abstract: The paper presents faunal and geochemical characterization of the Westphalian marine faunal horizons of Europe. This horizons are characterized by facies variability expressed by faunal spectrum variability and different geochemical features of the sediments. Facies analysis of the Dunbarella horizon (boundary Westphalian A and B) of the Lublin Coal Basin, which is correlated with Katharina horizon, Quaregnon horizon and Clay Cross Marine Band horizon showed the cyclic sedimentation typical for the Westphalian marine fauna horizons.

Keywords: marine faunal horizons, faunal Dunbarella horizon, Westphalian A and B, Lublin Coal Basin
p. 134 pobierz
12 5(17)/2016/12

Tadeusz MZYK
Forecast of course of flooding liquidated coal mine in north-eastern part of Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Abstract: The paper presents characteristic of natural, mining conditions in the area of one of closed mines in the north-eastern part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The natural and historical conditions (exploitation made) decide about the process of reconstruction of quasi-natural conditions in the area. Forecast of flooding rate of the formation- reconstruction of quasi-natural conditions is important to determine remedial actions and possibilities of the land surface management. Thus, it is one of the key elements in the process of the spatial planning in the area of closed mines.

Keywords: the impact of mining, flooding of the formation, Water capacity of the formation, N-E part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin
p. 147 pobierz
13 5(17)/2016/13

Tadeusz MZYK, Marian GOROL
Destruction of the building as the influence of underground mining exploitation - the case study

Abstract: The article presents factors that resulting from the influence of underground mining, which soon resulted in damage to a building completely eliminate its use value. Conducted mining operations caused a direct influence (change in the morphology of the land) and indirect (changes in the water, ground vibrations, changes in land). Rains precipitation that occurred in May 2010, in conjunction with unfavorable changes in the morphology of the terrain caused the flood. Occurring factors, individually would not be destructive, but their mutual overlap ultimately led to the structural failure.

Keywords: the impact of mining exploitation, floodplains, hydrogeological damage, flooding 2010 (in Poland)
p. 165 pobierz
14 5(17)/2016/14

Tadeusz MZYK, Aleksandra CZAJKOWSKA, Marian GOROL
Adhibition of GNSS receiver for the impact of mining activities on the land surface monitoring

Abstract: The article presents a proposal methodology to assess the extent of the effects of continued mining operation using modern locator MobileMapper 120 is a measuring device for the collection and processing of spatial data and mapping outstanding pioneering technology Z- Blade. This technology allows to much faster initializing any combination of GPS or GLONASS satellites. Measurement methodology exemplified by the evaluation range flood plain, the rough wooded terrain. The methodology can be used to monitor the development within effects of mining at any stage of the selection to the surface.

Keywords: GIS , GPS , GNSS surveying , the impact of mining activities, flood plain
p. 176 pobierz
15 5(17)/2016/15

Mineral and chemical composition of the artifical aggregate produced on the basis of Zn-Pb metallurgical wastes

Abstract: The paper presents results of mineralogical and chemical studies of artificial aggregate produced on the basis of the old metallurgical Zn-Pb wastes. Mineral composition is dominated by minerals formed during metallurgical process as a result of high temperature interaction (pyroxene, plagioclase, mullite, magnetite, spinel) and secondary minerals formed as a result of hypergenic processes (gypsum, carbonates). In the chemical composition SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO dominate, but also Al2O3. The high concentration of Zn (even 5,5%) were also observed. Other elements identified in the artifical aggregate are: Pb, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Sr, Sb. The leaching tests showed that the amounts of elements which were leached to the eluates exceed standards.

Keywords: Zn-Pb wastes, artifical aggregate, zinc, lead, eluates, heavy metals, Orzeł Biały
p. 192 pobierz
16 5(17)/2016/16

Use of goldenrod (SOLIDAGO SP.) From difficult habitats for energy purpose

Abstract: Goldenrod (Solidago sp.) colonized most of the wasteland , which are difficult habitats. Acquisition of goldenrod from difficult habitats for energy purposes is justified for: large areas of wasteland dominated by this plant, its duration for such areas , getting high yields of green biomass without large expenditures, a low content of heavy metals in the stems and leaves of this plant, high energy value of Solidago Sp. and the amount of obtained biogas.

Keywords: goldenrod, Solidago sp., difficult habitats, biomass, energy value, biogas
p. 204 pobierz
17 5(17)/2016/17

First step to urban mining. Restoration of gas wells in municipal waste deposits and reactivation of gas production

Abstract: There are two themescombined: first, there are gas wells in municipal waste deposits with leakages which don’t deliver usable gas anymore and second, there are abandoned municipal waste deposits closed in the 1980’s with any sealing neither at bottom nor on top. Both, abandoned municipal waste deposits and waste deposits with leakages in their gas wells, are sources of air pollution and common to both is the lack of money to stop this pollution. The aim of research team of THGA is to find cheap solutions to stop the contamination around municipal waste deposits. Gas wells in municipal waste deposits normally are filtered from the bottom to the top over their full length. In the top layers the organic waste reacts with oxygen and these parts are inertised in a short time. This will result in leakages between the surface and the well. From that time the well will suck air from the surface but no more gas from deeper layers. Power plants cannot work anymore because of the bad quality of the gas. In a laboratory test the restoration of such wells with a special kind of foam was tested and improved. Later in several wells of Celje municipal waste deposit (Celje, Slovenia) leakages were located in sucking tests. The filter lengths with leakages were foamed and after this restoration gas of higher quality was sucked. In the last century nearly every village in Germany, but not only there, had have their own municipal waste deposit. There was no soil or groundwater protection or a system to suck any gas. By the first “LAGA Merkblatt – Die geordnete Ablagerung von Abfällen” (a regulation about waste deposits in Germany) from September 1979 a system with a new type of landfills started. This type contains a base of low permeability, water and gas drainage system, as well as surface covering. Concentration on a few great landfills began and a lot of old landfills were abandoned. These old landfills were covered with soil and most of them still exist in this form in the landscape. Unfortunately these landfills still show chemical reactions. They still produce waste water and landfill gas. So they are contaminating the groundwater and their gas production still destroysthe vegetation on their surface. Methane and carbon dioxide are polluting the atmosphere. But most authorities don’t accept this problem because these landfills have been closed for more than 30 years, and therefore the landfills are expected to be inert.

Keywords: old municipal waste deposit, gas wells, gas concentration
p. 216 pobierz
18 5(17)/2016/18

Waste management policies in Finland and Poland – towards a recycling society

Abstract: In the paper there is presented a comparison of waste management policies in two EU-countries: Finland and Poland. There are described legal regulations considering communal and industrial wastes management. There are presented the most important facts and figures about total amount of wastes which is being produced and there are presented activities of waste treatment and recovery of secondary materials towards a recycling society.

Keywords: waste management, legal regulations, recycling
p. 229 pobierz


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